Updated 14-IV-2012
Sodium Vapour
Spectral Properties
Lamp Technology
Vapour Pressure
Current Density
Gas Filling
Sodium Migration
Failure Mechanisms
Lamp Designs
Low Voltage Style
     Compton's Lamp
     Philora DC
     GE NA-9
High Voltage Style
     Philora AC
     SO/H U-Tube
     SOI/H Integral
     SOX/H Coated
     SLI/H Linear
Self-Starting Style
     Double Ended
     Single Ended
Control Gear
Series Operation
Autoleak Reactance
Ballast-Ignitor System
High Frequency Electronic

References - LPS

Presented below is a listing of technical papers, books and other literature containing further information on the Low Presssure Sodium lamp.

Year Title & Author Reference
1934 Neue Gasentladungslichtquellen und ihre Anwendung
E. Lax, M. Pirani
Technisch-wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen aus dem Osram-Konzern V.3 pp.6-22
1934 Energy Balance, Elect. Temp & Volt Grad. in +ve Column of Na+He,Ne,Ar
M.J. Druyvesten, N. Warmoltz
London, Edinburgh & Dublin Phil. Mag. & J. Sci. V17 No 110 pp.1-28
1934 The AC Sodium Vapour Lamp (10,000lm Na-9)
G.R. Fonda, A.H. Young
General Electric Review Jul-34 pp.331-337
1934 Operating Characteristics of Sodium Vapor Lamps (4000lm DC style)
N.T. Gordon
General Electric Review Jul-34 pp.338-341
1936 Ausgestaltung, Eigenschaften und Betrieb der Entladungslampen
H. Lingenfelser, E. Summerer
Technisch-wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen aus dem Osram-Konzern V.4 pp.15-19
1937 The Sodium Lamp
E.G. Dorgelo, P.J. Bouma
Philips Technical Review V.2 No.12 pp.353-360
1940 Description of Historic Sodium Lamps in Philips Collection lost in WW2
Curators of former Philips Museum, Eindhoven
Unreferenced Handwritten document
1943 Philips Natriumlampen DA90, SO300, SO500, SO/H
P.J. Oranje
Gasentladungslampen pp.63-83
1950 Natrium en Kwiklampen
C.Th. Haverkorn van Rijsewijk, H.C. van der Molen
N.V. Uitgeversmaatschappij Diligentia, Amsterdam
1951 New Glasses for the Construction of Sodium-Vapour Discharge Lamps
A.E. Dale, J.E Stanworth
BTH Lamp Research Lab. Report 34KK
1956 Premature Failures in Sodium Vapour Lamps 1951-55
T. Dugmore
BTH Lamp Works Internal Report
1956 A New Sodium Lamp (SOI Integral)
E.H.Nelson, S.A.R.Rigden
Light & Lighting 1956 pp.217-220
1959 The Absorption of Argon by C42 Glass
J.W. Wheeldon
AEI Lamp & Lighting, Lab Report T1006
1959 High Output Sodium Lamps (SLI/H Linear Design)
R.F. Weston
Electrical Times May-59 pp.2-5
1959 High Power Sodium Streetlighting (AEI 200W Linear Sodium)
Electrical Times Aug-59 pp.67
1959 Economics of Linear Sodium Lamps applied to Streetlighting
C.W. Rawlings
Electrical Journal, Sep-59
1959 Modifications to 140W SO/H Inner Arc Tube Designs
F. Jackson
AEI Lamp & Lighting Co. Internal Report TE 30
1959 Potential Application of the Linear Sodium Lamp to Streetlighting
G.K. Lambert
Light & Lighting Oct-59
1960 Description & Setup of "Ionic Pumping in Sodium Lamp" Exhibit
H.L. Privett
AEI Leicester, Lamp Training Dept.
1960 Resonance Radiation in Discharge Tubes of Non-Circular Cross-Section
M.A. Cayless
British Journal of Applied Physics V.11 pp.492-498
1960 Wetting by Liquid Metals
D.E. Robbins
AEI Lamp & Lighting Co. Internal Report TE 50
1960 Resonance Radiation in Discharge Tubes of Non-Circular Cross-Section
M.A. Cayless
British Journal of Applied Physics Nov-60 pp.
1961 Barium Aluminate Rod Cathodes for Sodium Lamps
M.A.Cayless, A.D.Forster-Brown
AEI Rugby Research Lab Report No. L.4829C
1961 Intensity Control of Linear Sodium Lamps Applied to Airport Landing Aids
M. Latin, R.F. Weston, G.K. Lambert
AEI Lamp & Lighting Co. Internal Report
1962 Recent Improvements in Sodium Lamps (SOI/H Integral Design)
M.H.A. van de Weijer
Philips Technical Review V.8/9 No.8/9 pp.246-257
1963 Philips Range of new SOI Lamps
M.H.A. van de Weijer
Light & Lighting c. 1963 pp.248
1964 Sodium Lamp Efficiency
R.F. Weston
AEI Lamp & Lighting Co. Internal Report TE 139
1964 Linear Sodium Lighting with Intensity Control Applied to Airport Landing
M.Latin, R.F. Weston, G.K. Lambert
Illuminating Engineering Apr-64 pp.239-246
1966 Sorption of Argon by Glass in a Gas-discharge Lamp
A.J. Burggraaf
J. American Ceramic Society V.49 No.S pp.450-454
1968 Low Pressure Sodium Lamps with Indium Oxide Filter
H.J.J. van Boort, R. Groth
Philips Technical Review V.29 No.1 pp.17-18
1968 Sodium Vapour Distribution in SOX Lamps
L.C. Wiltshire
B.L.I. Jules Thorn Labs, Enfield
1969 Improvements in Low Pressure Sodium Vapour Lamps
W. Elenbaas, H.J.J. van Boort, R. Spissens
Illuminating Engineering Feb-69 pp.94-98
1974 HPS and LPS - A Primer
T.K. McGowan
Lighting Design & Application Dec-74 pp.19-23
1975 Positive Column Discharges of Cesium & Sodium Noble Gas Discharges
H. van Tongeren
Philips Research Report 1975 No.3
1975 Further Improvement of the Low Pressure Sodium Lamp
R.L.C. van de Vaan, T.G. Verbeek
Proc. IES Conference 1975
1975 Temperature Dependence of Electrical/Optical Characteristics of 90W SOX
S. Stojko
Thorn Lighting Internal Report
1975 The Efficacy and Design of Low Pressure Sodium Vapour Lamps
W. Elenbaas
LS? No. 5-1
1978 Security Lighting with Philips 18W SOX
D. Fischer
International Lighting Review 1978 pp.
1978 Studies Concerned with the Improvement of the LPS Lamp
A.G. Jack
IES/CIBS National Lighting Conference 1978 pp.1-11
1979 Degradation Analysis in Switched Low Pressure Sodium Lamps
D.M. Barry, S.M.F. Kohbodi
Lighting Research & Technology V.11 No.4 pp.189-192
1979 The Low Pressure Sodium Lamp
IES Lighting Review Aug-79 pp.98-101
1981 Low Pressure Sodium Discharge Lamps
J.W. Denneman
IEE Proceedings V.128 No.6 pp.397-414
1982 Fifty Years of SOX
International Lighting Review 1982/2 pp.31
1982 MTO Turnhoutlampen - Lagedruk Natrium
L. Sprengers
Philips Training Document
1982 Low Pressure Sodium Lighting Celebrates its Golden Jubilee
A. Crombags
Philips Lighting News 1982 No.8 pp.1-11
1982 SOX Lamps Break 200lm/W Barrier
Electrical Review V.211 No.16 pp.25
1984 High Frequency Operation of Low Pressure Sodium Lamps
J.J. de Groot, A.G. Jack, H. Coenen
Annual Conference of IES, St. Louis, 1984
1984 High Frequency Operation of Low Pressure Sodium Lamps
J.J. de Groot, A.G. Jack, H. Coenen
Journal of IES Oct-84 pp.
1985 LPS Lamps with a Luminous Efficacy of 200lm/W
L. Sprengers, R. Campbell, H. Kostlin
Journal of IES Apr-85 pp.607-616
1986 Elimination of Methane from the outer bulb of low pressure sodium lamps
W. Kroontje, B.J. de Maagt, M.H.J.van Rijswick, L. Sprengers
J.Vacuum Science & Technology V.4 No.5 pp.2293-2296
1986 SOX-E - A New Generation of LPS Lamps with Improved Performance
L.M. Sprengers, J.I.C. Peters
National Lighting Conference 1986 pp.266-272
1993 SOX-Plus Saves You £s
D. Riley, K. van Meerten
Lighting Journal, 1993
1994 Matching SOX - SOX HF Developments
D. Riley
Lighting Equipment News 1994 pp.
1995 SOX Development Conference
D. Riley
ILE Lighting Journal Jun-95 pp.190-191
2003 SOX Borrows from SON Technology - Philips SOX-PSG
J.D. Hooker
Lighting Equipment News Oct-03 pp.11