Updated 04-I-2019

Burton Gad Tremaine

This article is based on a document of fellow lamp engineer and collector Edward J. Covington, which appeared on his website of biographical sketches of persons involved in the lamp industry. Following his passing in February 2017 and with kind permission of his family, Ed's words have been preserved and subsequently expanded with new material by this author, to maintain continued access to the research he initiated.


Burton Gad Tremaine16

Introduction
Seldom in the history of mankind does an individual come along who, in collaboration with another, has an outstanding positive impact on society. This is the story of one such person who was not only highly successful in business but was also one who conducted himself in such a manner to gain the respect and confidence of those who knew and worked with him. The gentleman of interest here is Burton Gad Tremaine, who was born in Michigan during the Civil War. His associate for over 25 years was Franklin Silas Terry (1862-1926).


The National Electric Lamp Company
In the year 1900 the incandescent lamp business was in a state of discord17. The courts were filled with lawsuits that dealt with patent infringements, and bitter competition had driven lamp prices below actual manufacturing costs. Because of that situation lamp quality became inferior and, therefore, totally unacceptable. The small manufacturers also were not able to compete with the giant in the field, the General Electric Company, as it had the resources to do fundamental research and development work - resources the small manufacturers did not have. The eventual return to quality products was due in large measure to the ideals and success of the National Electric Lamp Company - a consortium of lamp manufacturers.

The formation of National took some time to accomplish. Starting in the year 1884 Franklin Silas Terry managed the Chicago office of the Electrical Supply Company, which had its home base in Ansonia, Connecticut. A former engineer from the Sawyer-Man Company, a manufacturer of electric incandescent lamps, suggested to Terry that he should begin to manufacture lamps as he believed it to be a good business opportunity. As a result of that suggestion Terry formed the Sunbeam Incandescent Lamp Company in Chicago in 1889.

In Fostoria, Ohio a group of men were engaged in several businesses. John Bernard Crouse and his brother-in-law, Henry Abner Tremaine, had started making lamps in 1897 under the name "Fostoria". Crouse then brought his son, J. Robert, into the business. Another important person, who had been in the insurance business in Cleveland, was also brought on board. He was Tremaine's cousin, Burton Gad Tremaine. The founding fathers of the National Electric Lamp Company were in place; it was only necessary to bring all five individuals together.

At the end of the 1890s Franklin Terry casually suggested consolidation of the small lamp companies so that all could benefit, by means of common laboratory facilities. That suggestion was made when he met with his competitors during business travels. At a dinner meeting in 1901 he sat next to Burton Tremaine and again made the suggestion. That meeting of the two men, and Terry's suggestion, probably was the catalyst that was needed to get the ball rolling. It turned out that Charles A. Coffin, the head of the General Electric Company, had suggested that the Fostoria Company combine with GE. Coffin knew H. A. Tremaine and J. B. Crouse because he (Coffin) was a stockholder in the National Carbon Company - a firm founded by Crouse and H. A. Tremaine. The suggestions were not acted on until the right circumstances existed. That happened at the jobber's dinner in Chicago in 1901 when B. G. Tremaine sat next to F. S. Terry and Terry again made his suggestion.

The idea had germinated long enough. The five men founded National - with the help of the General Electric Company! GE agreed to put up 75% of the needed capital and remain as a silent partner. It was an unusual arrangement. At the insistence of Franklin Terry and Burton Tremaine, there was to be no person from General Electric involved in the running of National.

The change in the name of National between 1901 and 1925 follows:

1901 - National Electric Lamp Company
1906 - National Electric Lamp Association
1911 - National Quality Lamp Division of General Electric Company
1913 - National Lamp Works of General Electric Company
1925 - Incandescent Lamp Department of General Electric Company


Nela Park - One of the First Industrial Parks in the United States
In the early years of the 20th century the various departments of National were scattered about in Cleveland. It was soon realized that one could build the required buildings on a large plot of land for about the same cost as the required floor area in a 45-story building on a 100 x 100-foot lot in the downtown area. It was primarily Franklin Terry who therefore looked for a piece of land, and, in due time, he found it.

In 1911 if one boarded the trolley and rode east on Euclid Avenue the end of the line was in East Cleveland, about seven to eight miles from downtown Cleveland. It was to that location that the National group was to move. The move there by National established one of the first industrial parks in the United States, and it has served as a model for industrial organizations since. Over one hundred years later the facility is still in operation.

The word Nela is an acronym for National Electric Lamp Association.


A Stroll Through the Park
Nela Park, among other things, is a virtual arboretum. The area consists of a plateau 230 feet above Lake Erie with a picturesque ravine on the northeast side and a sweeping view of the lake to the northwest. The original land area consisted of 37 acres but it was eventually increased to 92.

The beauty of the grounds generally surpasses those of university campuses. One outstanding feature of the area is the large variety of trees. There are specimens of black, chestnut, pin, red, and white oak as well as honeylocust, gingko and horsechestnut and at least one of those trees dates to the days of Moses Cleaveland (1754-1806). Several of the oak tree varieties can be found in an area known as Nela Camp. Some features of the Park are not necessarily obvious to a visitor or newcomer. Conspicuous by their absence are large information signs on the grounds.The early building architecture is Georgian style of the late eighteenth century. Some buildings bear resemblance to buildings in Bath and Salisbury, England where Frank E. Wallis, the designer, traveled for ideas.

The American elm trees that line both sides of Elm Drive South were planted in 1917 and are treated twice annually to prevent loss due to Dutch elm disease. Across Ravine Drive a weeping beech tree can be seen. It is commonly referred to as the "upside down" tree. In the same direction one can see the copper-covered observatory dome.

Along the quadrangle sidewalk are several globe elm, which were obtained in England and were originally planted in 1916. The ball shape is their natural form. The underground sprinkling system in the quadrangle area was first installed in 1927 and the water for it is taken from the pool in front of the Lighting Institute.

Throughout the Park one will become aware of some underground tunnels. Tunnels connect most buildings and are primarilty for the running of pipes and electrical wiring; they are about seven feet wide and just as high. Manholes exist at regular intervals. They are used for ventilation and can be used as escape exits in case of emergency. The total length of the underground tunnels is about three quarters of a mile. One of the more interesting walkways, which was used in earlier days when the main entrance was at the Terrace Road - Nela Avenue junction, is the one that runs from the entrance lodge at that gate to a building on the hill. The walkway is 343 feet long and has double walls. Light fixtures with diffusing glass are located between the walls and light shines through metal frame windows, giving one the illusion that the pedestrian tunnel is on the surface of the ground with sunlight illuminating the windows. The floor and steps are of red quarry tile.

In 1913 there were no paved roads or permanent sidewalks. The concrete tops of the pipe tunnels served as sidewalks. Roads were subsequently paved with red brick as were the sidewalks. One advantage that exists with the placement of sidewalks over the pipe tunnels is the melting of snow during winter months because of escaping heat. In 1920 the brick herringbone pattern was standardized for permanent sidewalks and flagstone for temporary sidewalks. Granite curbs replaced cement ones during the years 1937-1946.

In the spring or summertime one can walk to the pool area in order to view rose bushes. The original purpose of the pool was to provide an auxiliary water supply for fire protection. The pool is 144 feet in diameter and 11.5 feet deep with a capacity of about one million gallons.The fountain, which was installed in 1940, consists of several nozzles, so spaced that the water spread covers about one-third the surface area. A column of water 70 feet in height is ejected from the center nozzle.

The Lighting Institute is the most ornate of the buildings. The bell tower rises 72 feet above the pavement and houses Westminster chimes.They were installed in 1920. Four bells are made of bronze and their total weight is 2840 pounds with the heaviest weighing 1550 pounds. The hammers in the bells weigh 20, 40, 60 and 90 pounds. The power to ring the bells is supplied by suspended weights.

In 1922 the bronze statuary above the pool, designed by Robert Aitken, was installed.


National in World War I
In addition to establishing a welcoming attitude to returning soldiers, National undertook a large supporting effort for the war3. Charcoal was used in the cannister of a gas mask and combined efforts of National Lamp Works and the National Carbon Company dealt with research to obtain the best carbon. A Vacuum Tube Division was established and work commenced on the transmitting pliotron tube and the regulating kenotron. Receiving, transmitting, regulator and resistance tubes were also produced. The X-Ray Division was established and along with other products, Coolidge X-Ray tubes were made.

An activity in which B. G. Tremaine was personally involved was The Sock League. A request was made to Mr. Tremaine regarding a movement to obtain woolen socks for British soldiers. The effort was begun and the first lot of socks were on their way in January, 1917. The following is an excerpt from a letter by Mr. Tremaine regarding the need:

"There is an urgent appeal from suffering Europe for comforts in the form of socks, etc., for those brave men who are giving their lives in this long and disastrous war.

"I feel sure that there are many who are willing and anxious to take part in alleviating their misery, and who would become active if they knew what to do. Therefore, I am forming a Sock League, and personally will pay for and supply yarn and needles to these willing workers."

Thousands of needles were made at the National's 45th Street plant and donated to the Sock League. Eventually socks were given to American troops as well. According to a writeup in The National in the World War3: "A grand total of seventeen thousand three hundred and seventy-seven pairs of socks - enough to supply a whole combat division in the army - was the tangible product of Mr. Tremaine's Sock League."


Terry and Tremaine Booklets
In a letter dated April 22, 1920 Terry and Tremaine announced that they intended to publish, from time to time, articles in book form15. It stated, in part, that:

"The purpose of these articles is to give our employees the essential facts, as well as some of our opinions, on the important topics of the day, and also on any other subjects from the discussion of which they may receive some benefit."
They considered it an obligation on their part to give the employees a better understanding of their relations with the employer and with society. The intent was to lessen friction caused by the employees' misconception of these subjects. The final objective was to establish better relations between the employees and management. The booklets would be similar to those issued earlier regarding the war between Germany and the United States.

These were issued between the years 1918 and 1926. Their size was about five by seven inches with the number of pages varying from 30 to 83. As an example, regarding thrift, it was felt that a person on the factory floor should become astute enough in saving and investing money so that those extra earnings would equal her/his take-home pay.

For the writing task, Miss Katherine Irvin Woods (1889-1968) was hired. Miss Woods obtained ideas and suggestions from Terry and Tremaine, as well as others, and then prepared the manuscript. The manuscript was then read for approval.

Terry and Tremaine wrote the Foreword for some of the booklets and their views on the topics under discussion were therefore clearly expressed. The booklets reveal a great depth of understanding of the subject matter and constitute excellent reading. Many are timeless in their importance of topic.

In addition to the 35 booklets published on topics of civics and educational aspects of living, National was outstanding in the printing of commercial bulletins and other descriptive brochures regarding lamps and lamp applications. These publications were requested from around the world and their quality and utility were praised by all. Publication was so important that National had its own printing plant.


Example of a booklet cover; No. 12 in the series


Comments by Terry and Tremaine in Booklet No. 35
The last booklet put out by Terry and Tremaine was titled "The Spirit of the National Lamp Works". In it they commented on the nature of the organization that had survived for 25 years. Their writeup was titled "An Explanation". It follows verbatim17.
"A business organization, like an individual, develops an individuality; or, to express it in another way, it builds up a character. In this booklet Miss Woods has given her conception of the character of the National Lamp Works as it has been developed during its life of a quarter of a century. She finds it unusual. If anything unusual has been done it was not the thought in mind of doing something unusual. It was just simple and natural.

"As we look back we are conscious of having an affection for the business and the individuals that made up its organization. It was therefore but natural that we should have had the thought of service and of consideration for those with whom we had relations.

"The large corporation of the present day takes the place of the old-time business organizations, each one of which was controlled by one individual who directs the business and who was acquainted with, and had a personal interest in, all of his employes. If it were true that 'a corporation has no soul' and 'there is no sentiment in business,' we would have in the present day corporation an unfortunate substitute for the business organizations of a few years ago. But it has been our experience that human qualities and right principles have much the same value in business that they have in individuals. We liked to think of our organization as something alive, with a heart and a soul and a growing conscience.

"An employer has many responsibilities. In the early days of the National Electric Lamp Company, back in 1901, we were struggling for financial success and thinking mostly of how to make the business pay. This was one responsibility. As time went on we thought more of our responsibility to our employes and the influence we might have over their success or failure in life. We thought of our responsibility for the organization we were building up - what kind it would be and of its character.

"We felt that we had a responsibility for the success of those who came into our organization; not alone for the progress in their business positions but for their personal financial progress as well. We discussed with our employees thrift and investments. We worked out with our managers a plan for placing a part of their compensation in a common fund for investment which would later be distributed in securities. It was a success. From this start they learned how to invest for themselves, and we believe that their accumulations are much above the average of those in other organizations who have had equal incomes.

"We endeavored to preserve the advantages of a large corporation in our laboratories and research work and other ways of advancing the business, and at the same time to preserve the advantages of the smaller business organization by giving to every person who was in charge of a part of the business, the fullest authority in dealings with his employes and all other matter of local interest.

"Ours was not a military or line organization, but it was divided into parts which operated almost like separate lines of business. Each had its manager with full responsibility for his part and with the right to act. He was independent of the others. There was no one who 'bossed' or gave instructions to the other managers because he held a position of greater authority. Possibly mistakes were made that would have been avoided had it been necessary for every individual to secure approval before acting, but we think that the average of the results was on the right side, and that the development of the individuals was helped by independence and responsibilty.

"Because of their right to act independently it was especially important that our managers should have the wish to cooperate and work in harmony. They were located in different parts of the country and some would not meet each other or ourselves during the year. Reasoning that where there is friendship there is harmony and that a man's feelings are largely influenced by his external conditions, we selected an island for a yearly meeting place. There we were isolated and free and with sunshine and facilities to play, and the friendships formed under these conditions had an important influence.

"The grounds and buildings at Nela Park in Cleveland, which is the headquarters of our organization, are more than the conventional 'office space.' We built with the thought that our organization was to have a spirit and as such should have its home.

"We have been asked why we have published these booklets. Our object in all this was not to sell lamps, but to put in permanent form a little of the character of our organization. As our active connection with the business is now coming to an end, we have selected the subject of this booklet for the last one that we shall have published.

"When appointing the one to succeed us in management of the business we thought of the qualifications of ability, unselfishness, modesty and fairness; and we feel that we have fulfilled our responsibility for the future.

"We acknowledge with appreciation the confidence that has been shown in us by the officers of the General Electric Company, of which our lamp business has been a part, giving us the unrestricted opportunity of employing our own principles in our business organization.

"We have had a quarter of a century of interesting business activity. As our ideas have developed and our conscience has grown we have tried to fix in our minds and to follow right principles. Our business has been a success. Those with whom we have been associated have been loyal and have given us their affection. We have been proud of the Spirit of the National - the spirit of its employes."

Cleveland, Ohio, May, 1926. ---------------------------------------- TERRY and TREMAINE


Tremaine Family Lineage
Available genealogy information of the Tremaine family covers several generations1,12,13. However, only a few generations will be considered here. In this writing the lineage starts with Solomon Tremaine.

Solomon Tremaine (1785-1868) married Lucy Brainard (1789-1873) on December 4, 1806. Children born were: Daniel, Abner, Gillis, Ansel, Avaline, Aveline, and Warren.

Warren (1828-1915), married Ellen Matilda Freeman (1836-1909) on December 12, 1855. Children born were: Winston W., Florence E., Jane, Lucy, Anita, Blanche, and Burton Gad.

Burton Gad (1863-1948) married Amelia Marie Vogel (1858-1941) on December 23, 1886. She was a native of Cleveland. Children born were: Gretchen, Burton Carl and Bertine Amelia. The marriage ended in divorce.

Burton Gad (1863-1948) married Maude Edith Draper (1869-1910) on February 6, 1900. She was born in Montezuma, Iowa. Children born were: Burton Gad, Jr.(1901-1991), Henry Alan, and Warren Draper.

Burton Gad (1863-1948) married Martha Mooney (ca 1874-1942) on March 1, 1917. She was a native of Woodsfield, Ohio. No children issued from this marriage.

A cousin of Burton Gad Tremaine, Henry Abner Tremaine, was also a descendent of Solomon Tremaine. Solomon's son, Abner (ca 1815 - ----), married Mahala Hatch (1819-1908) on April 28, 1849. Their son, Henry Abner (1852-1938), married Emma Permelia Crouse (1862-1931), sister of John Bernard Crouse, in 1879. Therefore, two persons of interest in the formation of National were brothers-in-law (H. A. Tremaine and J. B. Crouse).


Burton Gad Tremaine's Youth Days
B. G. Tremaine was born in Marine City, Michigan on October 14, 1863. At age 17 B. G. left school and at age 19 was working in a roller rink in Columbus, Ohio. At age 20 he opened a grocery store in Detroit, Michigan. In his spare time B. G. tried selling fire insurance. He was so successful in that venture that he sold the grocery store and, at age 21, accepted a job in Cleveland, Ohio as a representative of the Agricultural Fire Insurance Company. Cleveland was to become his permanent home.


Some Listings for B. G. Tremaine in the Cleveland City Directories:20
1885 - Insurance agent, 52 Public Square; residence- 4 Goldsmith Court (for year ending July, 1886)
1887 - Manager, Branch Agricultural Insurance Co. of Watertown, NY; office- room 2, 219 Superior Street
1888-1891 - General insurance agent, room 9, 219 Superior Street; residence- The O'Perry, 151 Perry
1892 - General insurance agent, room 2, 219 Superior Street; residence- 393 Russell Avenue
1895 - Schatzinger & Tremaine; B. G. Tremaine & Co.; treasurer, Cleveland Gas & Electric Co.; residence- 236 Crawford Road
1896 - Schatzinger & Tremaine; Shattuck, Tremaine & Cummings; residence- 160 Kenilworth
1897-1898 - Shattuck, Tremaine & Co.; Schatzinger & Tremaine, 204 Superior; residence- Hazeldell Avenue, Glenville
1899-1900 - Shattuck, Tremaine & Co., 204 Superior; residence- 42 Hazeldell Avenue, Glenville
1901 - Tremaine, Draper & Co., 204 Superior; residence- 42 Hazeldell Avenue, Glenville
1902 - Evarts, Tremaine & Co., Williamson Building; residence- 42 Hazeldell Avenue, Glenville
1903 - General insurance, vice president, The Evarts-Tremaine Co.; residence- 817 Doan, Glenville
1904 - Vice president, The Evarts-Tremaine Co.; residence- 27 Morse Avenue
1906-1909 - 2nd vice president, National Electric Lamp Co.; residence- 2052 E. 77th Street
1910 - Vice president, Evarts-Tremaine-Flicker Co.; residence- Willowick
1911- 1913 - President, Evarts-Tremaine-Flicker Co.; residence- Wickliffe
1914 - Manager, National Lamp Works of General Electric Co.; residence- Hillandale, Wickliffe
1915 - Manager, National; residence- Wickliffe
1916-1919 - President, Evarts-Tremaine-Flicker; residence- Wickliffe
1921 - Manager, National; residence- Hillandale, Wickliffe
1922 - Vice chairman, Advisory Board, National; residence- Hillandale, Wickliffe
1924 - Vice chairman, Advisory Board, National; residence- Wickliffe
1925 - Vice chairman, Advisory Board, National; residence- New York City
1926 - Chairman, National; residence- Wade Park Manor
1927 - Chairman, National Lamp Works; residence- Wade Park Manor


Characterization of Burton Gad Tremaine
In his book titled Developing An Industry, Philip S. Dodd commented2 on each of the five National founders. Regarding Burton Gad Tremaine he said:

"The trader in the organization is B. G. Tremaine, whose apparent object in life is to act as a foil for the Terry enthusiasm. Shrewd, quiet and impassive "B. G.," as he is familiarly referred to by lamp men, stands solidly on mother earth and asks always, "Where do we get off?" Not that he lacks either far-sight, breath or human sympathy, but to Tremaine money-in-the-bank is the practical side of business. His judgment of values, as applied either to men or to an idea or to physical property, is remarkable, amounting in the eyes of his friends almost to a sixth sense. His instinct for injecting a practical turn to every proposal is equally remarkable. When these two, Terry and Tremaine, agree upon a plan or policy, it is pretty sure to combine the elements of success and progress."
In the Book of the Incas4, ca 1930, a biographical sketch of B. G. Tremaine is given. In the sketch it states that his hobbies were dirt farming and raising alfalfa. He got his recreation from playing poker and rummy. He liked to talk about farming, stocks and bonds, and current events.


Winters in Arizona
The Tremaines often vacationed in Florida during the winter months. However, in the time period 1917-1918 the decision was made to travel to Arizona instead of Florida. It was in 1919 that the purchase of 320 acres of land south of Mesa was finalized. Apparently the ranch land had been producing cotton for the war effort, which resulted in overplanting. It was recommended that one should plant alfalfa in order to replace the nitrogen in the soil. And so it had to happen - B. G. Tremaine became an alfalfa farmer. Milling was then added to the effort and in 1924 the Tremaine Alfalfa Ranch and Milling Company was incorporated.14

Eventually the Tremaine cattle ranching interest expanded into the Tonto Basin to the northeast. Purchase of land farther north continued and eventually the land surrounding Meteor Crater was purchased. Descendents of B. G. Tremaine turned that section of land into a tourist attraction, which still exists today14.


Partial Map of Arizona Showing Mesa, Tonto Basin and Meteor Crater (Hammond Contemporary World Atlas, 1967)
(Note: The straight line distance from Mesa to Meteor Crater is about 122 miles)



Events and Activities in the Life of Burton Gad Tremaine
1863 Birth of Burton Gad Tremaine
1880 Work in Columbus, Ohio
1885 Insurance agent, Cleveland
1886 Marriage to Amelia Marie Vogel
1887 Manager, Branch Agricultural Insurance Company of Watertown, New York
1889 Birth of daughter, Gretchen
1891 Birth of son, Burton Carl
1892 General Fire Insurance Agent, Cleveland
1894 Birth of daughter, Bertine Amelia
1897-1898 Shattuck, Tremaine & Co., Schatzinger & Tremaine, Cleveland
1898 With the Cleveland Gas and Electric Fixture Company
1898 Cofounder of the Fostoria Incandescent Lamp Company
1899 Director and stockholder of an electric railroad company in Fostoria, Ohio
1900 Marriage to Maude Edith Draper
1900 Shattuck, Tremaine & Company, Cleveland
1901 Tremaine, Draper & Company, Cleveland
1901 Birth of son, Burton Gad Jr.
1901 Cofounder of the National Electric Lamp Company
1901-1912 Sales Manager of National Electric Lamp Association
1902 Evarts, Tremaine & Company (general insurance), Cleveland
1905 Birth of son, Henry Alan
1906 Birth of son, Warren Draper
1906 2nd Vice President, National Electric Lamp Company, Cleveland
1908 B. G. Tremaine and family on Southern Railway near Atlanta, Georgia on January 25 when a wreck occurred
1910 Death of second wife, Maude Edith Draper Tremaine
1911 President of Evarts-Tremaine-Flicker Company, Cleveland
1912 Board of Directors of the Peerless Motor Car Company
1912 Director of Cities Service Company
1913 Sailed on the R.M.S. Lusitania on September 26
1914 Manager, National Lamp Works of General Electric
1916 Auto accident in California. B. G. Tremaine suffered a broken wrist. Colonel Samuel Lewis Mooney, father of B. G.'s third wife, Martha, died.
1917 Marriage to Martha Mooney
1919 Purchased a 320-acre ranch midway between Mesa and Chandler, Arizona
1922 Vice-Chairman of the Advisory Board of the National Lamp Works
1923-1945 Director of the General Electric Company
1924 Enlarged the Tremaine Mesa ranch by 200 acres
1924 Purchased The Miller Company of Meriden, Connecticut
1926 Chairman, National Lamp Works
1935 Death of daughter, Gretchen
1941 Death of first wife, Amelia Marie Vogel Tremaine
1942 Death of third wife, Martha Mooney Tremaine5
1946 Death of son, Henry Alan
1948 Death of Burton Gad Tremaine6


The Passing of Burton Gad Tremaine
The Tremaine home was located at 17455 Shelbourne Road, Cleveland Heights, Ohio. It was there that he passed away on February 16, 1948, at age 84. Interment is in Lake View Cemetery, Cleveland. He and Franklin Silas Terry, who passed away in 1926, were two exceptional individuals whose combined efforts resulted in achievements that will continue to be noted in the history books.


Acknowledgements
Copies of three books of interest for this writing14,16,18 were provided gratis by Gean Tremaine, a great-great grandson of Burton Gad Tremaine. Copies of Tremaine genealogy information1,13,19 were kindly supplied by Burton Gad Tremaine (1922-2002), grandson of the subject of this writing, in 1993.


References & Bibliography
  1. "The History of the Treman, Tremaine, Truman Family in America", Ebenezer Mack Treman and Murray E. Poole,Press of the Ithaca Democrat, 1901.
  2. "Developing an Industry", Philip S. Dodd, The Curtis Press, Detroit, 1910.
  3. "The National in the World War, April 6 1917 - November 11 1918", General Electric Company, 1920.
  4. "Book of the Incas", 1928.
  5. "Mrs. Burton G. Tremaine", The Cleveland Plain Dealer, September 16 1942, p.20.
  6. "B. G. Tremaine of G.E. Dies in Home", The Cleveland Plain Dealer, February 17 1948, p.12.
  7. "Burton Gad Tremaine", Who Was Who in America, Vol.2, 1943-1950, The A. N. Marquis Company, Chicago, 1950, p.538.
  8. ""Association Island"", William Merrick, unpublished manuscript - first draft, ca.1953.
  9. "Lamps for a Brighter America - A History of the General Electric Lamp Business", Paul W. Keating, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1954.
  10. "A History of Nela Park, 1911-1957", Hollis L. Townsend, General Electric Company, 1957.
  11. "The General Electric Story, 1876-1986, A Photohistory", A Hall of History Publication, Schenectady, New York, 1989.
  12. Letter from Burton G. Tremaine, Jr. to Edward J. Covington, May 17 1993.
  13. Three-page genealogy information starting with Solomon Tremaine (compliments of Burton G. Tremaine, Jr., May 1993).
  14. "A Tale of Two Families - The Tremaines and the Chilsons", Dean Smith, Produced by Northland Graphics, 1994.
  15. "Franklin Silas Terry - (1862-1926)", Edward J. Covington, Printed by Graphic Communications Operation, GE Lighting, Nela Park, East Cleveland, Ohio 44112, 1994.
  16. "The Miller Company - The First 150 Years", Marguerite T. Scheips, 1995.
  17. "Makers of National - The Spirit and People of an Industrial Organization", Edward J. Covington, Printed by Graphic Communications Operation, GE Lighting, Nela Park, East Cleveland, Ohio 44112, 1997.
  18. "Emily Hall Tremaine - Collector on the Cusp", Kathleen L. Housley, Published in the United States by the Emily Hall Tremaine Foundatiion, 2001.
  19. Our Tremaine Line of Descent in America from Treman and Poole and BGT Files.
  20. Cleveland City Directories, Cuyahoga County Archives.