Metal Halide - Quartz

Updated
27-V-2017
Although the origins of the metal halide lamp can be traced back to a 1912 patent taken out by GE's Charles Steinmetz, the practical lamps based on current technologies first appeared in the labs of many of the world's leading lamp companies in the late 1950s. It was not until the mid 1960s that commercial products appeared, the first being commercialised by GE of America.

The technology is a development of the high pressure mercury lamp, to which trace additions of various other metals are added in the form of their halide compounds. These are vaporised into the discharge and contribute their spectral output, and materials are selected which fill in the gaps in the mercury spectrum to deliver a light source having considerably improved colour properties. The luminous efficacy of the lamps is also increased owing to a reduction in the generation of invisible ultraviolet radiation.

It is necessary to add the metals in the form of halides because the metals themselves usually have too low a vapour pressure to participate in the discharge, but the halides are vaporised very much more readily. In addition the additive metals are rather corrosive towards the quartz discharge tube wall, but when halides are employed, they generally exist in compound form on the quartz surface, in which state they are very much less reactive, thus minimising corrosion problems.

Multi-Band Chemistry

Philips

2000W

HPI/T 1st Generation shrink-sealed arc tube
1968

Philips

375W

HPI/T 2nd Generation pinch-sealed arc tube
1974

Philips

400W

HPI/T 3rd Generation with hydrogen getter
1981

Philips

400W

HPI/T 4th Generation with improved arc tube
1986

Philips

400W

HPI-T 5th Generation with blown arc tube
1996

Philips

400W

HPI-T 7th Generation with small arc tube
2012

Philips

400W

HPI-T Plus for Vertical operation
2008

Philips

400W

HPI-BUS Self-Starting Mercury Lamp Retrofit
1987

Philips

250W

HPI Plus with Daylight colour phosphor
2012

Philips

10,000W

HPI/TD Double Ended Stadium Floodlight
1971

Mazda

2000W

MAIH 2000 B 380V of French design
1978

Mazda

1000W

MAIH 1000 TP 220V of unusual French design
1979

Claude

1000W

MI 1000W-380V of unusual French design
c.1985

GEC

2000W

MBI/H 2000W Stadium Floodlight
1984

Narva

400W

Nachroma NC400-00 with Na-In-Tl chemistry
1984

Thorn

250W

Kolorarc MBI-T 250W tri-band high output
1991

Iwasaki

400W

Mutli-Super Ace 5-band Mercury Lamp Retrofit
2002
   

Sodium-Scandium Chemistry

Sylvania

400W

Metalarc Thorium-Scandium prototype
1965

Sylvania

400W

MetalArc Coated with Barium Peroxide Getter
1979

Sylvania

400W

Super MetalArc Horiz. with curved arc tube
1986

Sylvania

1000W

Super MetalArc Vertical with fattened arc tube
1984

GE

400W

Multi-Vapor MV-400/BD with Na-Sc chemistry
1973

Westinghouse

400W

MH400/BU/4 with glass-sleeved frame
1980

Thorn

375W

KolorArc MBI/BD 400W with etched arc tube
1979

Thorn

250W

MBIF/H/S Lithium for Marks & Spencer
1982

Saransk

175W

DRI 175W warm white of Russian design
1987

GE

175W

Multi-Vapor II (Halarc) high-lumen electronic
1989

Philips

1500W

Z-Lamp with offset arc tube for sports lighting
2003

Venture

400W

Glare-Guard with crown silvered outer bulb
1992

Thorn

1500W

MBIL/H High Wattage Double Ended Linear
1988

Sylvania

100W

MetalArc Protected for open fixtures
1986

GE

32W

Halarc MXR low wattage for open fixtures
1990

GE

350W

PulseArc for use with electronic starters
2000

GE

55W

'First Light' Electronic Halarc Self Ballasted
1981

GE

55W

'First Light' Electronic Halarc Self Ballasted
1981

Rare Earth Chemistry

Osram

360W

HQI-T 400W-71 Rare Earth of 2nd Generation
1972

Osram

360W

HQI-T 400W/DH Rare Earth of 3rd Generation
1982

Wotan

360W

HQI-T 400W/DV Rare Earth of 4th Generation
1988

Osram

400W

HQI-T 400W/D Rare Earth of 5th Generation
1991

Osram

400W

HQI-BT 400W/D Rare Earth of 6th Generation
2001

Wotan

250W

Powerstar HQI-R with integral reflector
1987

Tungsram

360W

HgMIF 400/DH Rare Earth Horizontal
1992

Polam

360W

LRJD Dysprosium-Thallium Indium lamp
1997

Osram

150W

HQI-TS 150W/NDL Double Ended Compact
1989

Philips

75W

MHN "Thulium Lamp" High-CRI Prototype
1985

Philips

70W

MHN-T Open Fixture Single Ended
1996

Philips

35W

MHN-TC Experimental Single Ended Compact
1993

Iwasaki

150W

ColorArc 3500K with exceptionally high Ra 96
1988

Iwasaki

70W

ColorArc 6500K PAR36 High-CRI Metal Halide
1999

Sylvania

35W

BriteSpot ES50 Compact Metal Halide Reflector
2003

Molecular Chemistry

Thorn

200W

Arcstream MBI-T Single Ended Prototype
1985

Osram

70W

HQI-T 70W/WDL Single Ended Compact
1987
   

Coloured Light

Tesla

400W

RVIZ Thallium Iodide Green colour lamp
1975

GEC

400W

MBI/U Indium Iodide Blue colour lamp
1986

YaMing

250W

JLC250 Sodium-Lithium-Indium Red colour lamp
2004

Narva

400W

NC400-04 Bilirubinaemia Gallium-Indium lamp
1981